PMW 2021-013 by Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr.

In 2 Timothy 3:1 we find a passage that seems to undercut the postmillennial optimism for the historical long run. There Paul writes: “realize this, that in the last days difficult times will come.”

Amillennialist Kim Riddlebarger sees this passage as a problem for those who hold the prospect of a victorious church: “Throughout the last days, some will distort the gospel to tickle itching ears and gather followers to themselves.” He continues in response to postmillennialism: “Paul warned us that this lamentable state of affairs is an inevitability for Christ’s church.”

Dispensationalists agree. Wayne House and Thomas Ice argue that “the Bible speaks of things progressing from ‘bad to worse,’ of men ‘deceiving and being deceived’ (2 Timothy 3:13), we look out at our world and see how bad things really are.” John Walvoord concurs: “With the progress of the present age, in spite of the dissemination of the truth and the availability of Scripture, the world undoubtedly will continue to follow the sinful description which the Apostle Paul gave here.” Wiersbe agrees: “Passages like 1 Timothy 4 and 2 Timothy 3 paint a dark picture of the last days.”

The Harrowing of Hell (by Jay Rogers)
This postmillennial book examines the power of the Gospel, not only to overcome all opposition, but to rise far above the powers of hell. The term “Harrowing of Hell” refers to idea that Christ descended into Hell, as stated in the Apostles’ Creed.

For more Christian educational materials: www.KennethGentry.com

Such interpretations of this passage, however, are exegetically flawed and anti-contextual. Nothing taught in these verses is contra-postmillennial. Note the following observations.

First, Paul’s original focus
He is dealing with a particular historical matter in the first century. He is speaking of things that Timothy will be facing and enduring (2Ti 3:10, 14). He is not prophesying about the constant, long-term, unyielding prospects for all of history. Likewise, when Paul writes to the church at Corinth complaining that “it is actually reported that there is immorality among you” (1Co 5:1), we should not lift it from its context as a universal principle applying to all churches. He is writing specifically to them.

Second, Paul’s actual point
The text does not demand unrelenting bad times lie before the church in all of history. And though difficult “times” (kairoi) will come during the last days (the period between the first and second advents), this does not demand a pessimistic position. The Greek term Paul employs here is kairoi, which indicates “seasons.” It is the logical error of quantification to read this reference to (some) “seasons” of difficulty as if it said all seasons will be difficult. The “difficult times” (kairoi chalepoi) are “qualitatively complexioned and specifically appointed seasons.” Postmillennialists are well aware of the “seasons” of perilous times that beset the church under the Roman Empire and at other times.

Third, Paul’s misunderstood nature
This passage does not teach historical decline accelerating in history. Citing 2 Timothy 3:13 in the debate leaves the unwarranted impression that things shall irrevocably become worse and worse in history. But the verse actually says: “evil men and impostors will proceed from bad to worse, deceiving and being deceived.” Paul is speaking of specific evil men becoming ethically worse, not more and more evil men becoming increasingly dominant. He is speaking of their progressive personal degeneration, i.e., the progressive anti-sanctification of evil men. Paul says absolutely nothing about a predestined increase in the number and power of such evil men.

Postmillennialism Made Easy

Postmillennialism Made Easy (by Ken Gentry)

Basic introduction to postmillennialism. Presents the essence of the postmillennial argument and answers the leading objections. And all in a succinct, introductory fashion.

See more study materials at: www.KennethGentry.com

Fourth, Paul’s postmillennial balance
He balances his teaching with a note of optimism. As a good postmillennialist, Paul clearly informs Timothy that these evil men (cf. 2Ti 3:1) “will not make further progress; for their folly will be obvious to all” (2Ti 3:9). Since God places limits on those evil-doers, Paul speaks as a man who expects victory. How different from the widespread, pessimistic conception of the progressive, limitless power of evil in our day. Paul’s conceives of the ultimate, long term impotence of evil in history.

The Beast of Revelation (246pp); Before Jerusalem Fell: Dating the Book of Revelation (409pp); Navigating the Book of Revelation: Special Studies on Important Issues (211pp).

In the Logos edition, these volumes by Ken Gentry are enhanced by amazing functionality. Important terms link to dictionaries, encyclopedias, and a wealth of other resources in your digital library. Perform powerful searches to find exactly what you’re looking for. Take the discussion with you using tablet and mobile apps. With Logos Bible Software, the most efficient and comprehensive research tools are in one place, so you get the most out of your study.

For more study materials, go to: KennethGentry.com



  1. Anthony February 12, 2021 at 2:24 pm

    I think the solution is even easier than what you propose, however your solution must be tied to a belief that the last days are all the days from Christ to the end of time. I think this makes you have to wiggle a little bit. I believe the last days refers to the last days of the Judaic era. In Acts 2 the last days are referenced (quoting from Joel) in by belief is defining the time of the writing of the New Testament, all pre 70 AD. I’m convinced of this because the last days are to be defined by “signs and wonders” , “young men seeing visions”, “old men dreaming dreams”, “sons and daughters prophesying” (I know proclaiming God’s word is a version of prophesying but I don’t think that is what is in view here simply because of the company the word are keeping). If anyone in any of our churches said that they dreamed a dream from God, or saw a vision, or insisted on speaking in tongues, or proclaimed signs and wonders (all of which is “done” in non-denominational / Pentecostal type churches) we would politely nod our head and seek to instruct that person otherwise. There’s much more evidence that convinced me than that but for brevity’s sake I picked that one because it takes the least explanation. BTW -I love your work and recommend you to EVERYONE. I just have a difference with the definition of the last days. And yes, those days were fraught with peril. Marrow was the way and only about 1/3 made it (to Pella I believe?)

  2. Kenneth Gentry February 13, 2021 at 10:16 am

    Thanks for reading and interacting. I hold to the standard Reformed view of the two ages: history and eternity. I will be posting an article about it in the next few days.The signs and wonders introduce the last days.

  3. Robert Cruickshank Jr February 13, 2021 at 8:00 pm

    Ken, I tend to agree with Anthony in that the phrase the “last days” seems to make more sense as referring to the “last days” of the Old Covenant era. But I also agree with him on the value of your work, and I definitely agree with your push toward optimism regarding the advancement of Christ’s Kingdom! I especially like your point that “Paul is speaking of specific evil men becoming ethically worse, not more and more evil men becoming increasingly dominant.” Good stuff Ken!

  4. Kenneth Gentry February 14, 2021 at 10:41 am

    If “the last days” refer to the last days of the old covenant, then the resurrection of the dead has already occurred (John 6:39, 40, 44). And that resurrection is physical, as Martha recognizes (Matt. 11:24). Pluse none but those in the first century will be subjected to the judgment (John 12:48). God is the God of all of history: the “last days” are set over against the former days *Heb. 1:1-2), that is: the days after Christ and his rule are set over against the days of anticipation before Christ came to rule (which anticipation began at the beginning of world history in the Garden of Eden, Gen. 3:15). Christ is the divider of history, not the temple.

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